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Nacros115

Published September 27, 2022 © Creative Commons Attribution CC BY version 4.0 or later (CC BY 4+)

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Ivypots

Ivypots is a solution for peoples who want to grow indoors vegetables, without worrying about How Often & How Much Watering Houseplants.

COMPONENTS Hardware components

dfrobot - Gravity: Analog Capacitive Soil Moisture Sensor- Corrosion Resistant

x 8


sparkfun - SparkFun Qwiic Single Relay

x 2


M5Stack - Mini RFID Unit RC522 Module Sensor

x 1


sparkfun - SparkFun RGB LED Breakout - WS2812B

x 1

This is for the boot of the device


adafruit - USB Li Ion Battery Charger

x 1


AZ-delivery - AHT10

x 1

This is for the Temperature and Humidity


sparkfun - SparkFun microSD Transflash Breakout

x 1

For the Data logger and the firmware


Wurth electronic - WL-SMDC SMT Mono-color Ceramic LED Water clear

x 16

This is for the Horiculture


DFRobot - Gravity: Analog Ambient Light Sensor For Arduino

x 4

This is the Light Sensor

Software Apps and online services

Arduino - Arduino IDE

x 1


blynk - Blynk

x 1


PROJECT DESCRIPTION

 

                                                           //Project under developpement.//

 

Introduction


Ivypots is a solution for people who want to grow indoors vegetables, without worrying about How Often & How Much Watering the Houseplants are.

 

Ivypots uses the Peltier Effect to generate water from the humidity to finally be able to water the plants. Thanks to the SD Card we can use the results to create a graph in Excel to analyze the plants to determine how much and how often the plants need to be watered to give the best possible experience.

To be able to produce water, you must already understand what a Peltier module is. The module Peltier is a component that can perform heat exchange without any moving parts. It is a semiconductor cooler which consists of a collection of legs composed of P or N-type semiconductor material.

A schematic displaying a Seebeck effect, b Peltier effect exhibited by... |  Download Scientific Diagram
Module Peltier (Seebeck effect)

 A leg is constructed by creating several layers of substrate material, built up in order to have some height. 

Thermoelectric coolers operate according to the Peltier effect. The effect creates a temperature difference by transferring heat between two electrical junctions. 

Working principle of the Module Peltier

When the current flows through the junctions of the two conductors, heat is removed at one junction and cooling occurs. 

Depending on the direction of the current, when current is applied one side gets hot and the other gets cold. Thanks to this physical effect would be able in theory to produce water thanks to the condensation.

Note that, this is the same process as the so-called Dehumidifier. (or atmospheric water generator)

Vue intérieure d’un déshumidificateur Peltier
Dehumidifier using Peltier module

 The system is composed of three parts: the Peltier module, a HeatSink and a fan with these components the Dehumidifier can produce water. 

  For the device to be most effective a heat sink has to be mounted on the hot side for heat transfer, otherwise, the cooling effect will be minimized and it will not give proper results. 

Peltier Effect Cooling Experiments – Peltier Devices
Example of High temperature
Peltier died. Burn out? Condensation leakage? What could cause this? -  Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange
Burned Peltier module

Source: Peltier condensation dehumidifiers By Trotec

 


Now let's see how the light detection works :

For the light detection, we will use the KY-018 Photoresistor LDR module ideally it will be better to use a phototransistor because of its high accuracy but it will be more expensive than the project should be.

So how does it work? 

The KY-018 Photoresistor LDR module consists of a photoresistor (or Light Dependent Resistor - LDR) and a 10kΩ resistor. These two resistors create a voltage divider, as shown on the following image: 

Schematics of the KY-018 Photoresistor (Voltage divider)

The resistance of a photoresistor decreases in the presence of light and increases in the absence of it.

A photoresistor is a resistor that can vary depending on the state of the light, it will change the value of the voltage applied to it. 

To understand a little better how it works, here is an example:

How Light Sensor Works
Operation of a photoresistor

We can see when there is light the value of the voltage is 5V but when there is no light the voltage is 0V.  

Now that we know this, we could use this mechanism to deploy LEDs to give light to plants.

 How can we reproduce the sunlight?

Plants compared side-by-side, with LED-illuminated plants growing way more than the sunlight-illuminated plants
Great Scott : "Magical" LEDs let my plants grow faster? 

You may know that plants need light to be able to photosynthesize, but how can we do this?

First of all, plants need a certain spectrum of light especially ultraviolet radiation between 260–380 nm (UV), photosynthetically active radiation between 400-700nm (PAR), and infrared radiation (Far-Red) between 700–850 nm.

Emission Spectrum of WL-SMDC Horticulture LEDs

 

Photosynthetic Pigments and Light Receptors

So knowing this we can use a certain type of led like the WL-SMDC Horticulture LEDs from Würth Elektronik :

WL-SMDC SMT Mono-color Ceramic LED Water clear

I decided to choose 6 Hyper-Red LEDs, 4 Far-red LEDs, 2 Deep-Blue LEDs, and 4 White LEDs.Why these LEDs? Because of their light spectrum which matches the light spectrum of plants, which is the PAR Spectrum. (that includes Chlorophyll B (400-470nm), and Chlorophyll A (640-670nm) )

 

/////////////////////////////Hardware//////////////////////////// 

 List of components :

Getting Started with WizFi360-EVB-Pico – RP2040 and Wi-Fi Development Board  from WIZnet - CIRCUITSTATE Electronics
WizFi360-EVB-Pico

Here are the pinouts of the WizFi360-EVB-Pico :

WizFi360-EVB-Pico | WIZnet Document System
Pinouts  WizFi360-EVB-Pico 

 

  • Photo resistor/PhotoTransistor (The KY-018 Photoresistor LDR module) for the light detection
Photoresistor Characterization - Arduino Project Hub
Photo resistor/PhotoTransistor

 Specifications 

  • Operating voltage range: from 3.3V to 5V DC » 
  • Operating temperature: -25°C to 80°C [-13°F to 176°F] 
  • Dimensions: 19 x 15mm [0.73 x 0.6in]
Pinout for the KY-018 Photoresistor LDR module

 

  • Relay for activates the irrigation system or the Peltier module
Nouveau 5V/12V 2 channel relay board module pour Arduino Raspberry Pi ARM  AVR DSP Pic | eBay
Relay  

Specifications:

  • Maximum AC: 5A 50V 
  • Maximum DC: 5A 30V 
  • Contact Type: Both: Normally Closed – NC, Normally Opened - NO 
  • Dimensions: 49 x 51mm [1.9 x 2in]

 

  • Capacitive soil moisture measures soil moisture levels by capacitive sensing rather than resistive sensing like other sensors on the market. We will be using this for the hygrometric system's detection.
Capacitive soil moisture sensor V1.2 - Boutique Semageek
Capacitive soil moisture

Specifications:

  • Power supply voltage: 5V
  • Output voltage: Analog
  • Dimensions: 22 x 97 x 9mm 
  • 5V
Pinout of the Hygrometer 1.2

 

 

  • AHT10 is a high precision, fully calibrated, temperature and humidity sensor chip package, the MEMS production process, to ensure that products with high reliability and excellent long-term stability. The sensor includes a capacitive humidity sensing element and a high-performance microprocessor CMOS is connected. We will be using this for the temperature sensor and humidity
AHT10 RH/TEMP Sensor - Espruino
AHT10 

Specifications:

  • Size 15 mm * 10 mm
  • power DC 3.3V - 5 V
  • I2C interface
  • Temperature -40 to +85 ° C, accuracy + -1 ° C
  • humidity 0-100%, precision + -3%.
  • L2C address 0x76 (SDO LOW), 0x77 (SDO HIGH)

 

 

  • RGB LED for the boot of the System  
RGB LED (GNT1)

Specifications:

  • Voltage limitations per color are:
  • Red 1.8V ~ 2.4V
  • Green 2.8V ~ 3.6V
  • Blue 2.8V ~ 3.6V
Pinout of the GNT1 RGB LED

Specifications:

  • Voltage: 3.2 to 3.6 V 
  • Current: 700 mA

 

  • RGB LED for the plants (WL-SMDC SMT Mono-color Ceramic LED Waterclear)
WL-SMDC SMT Mono-color Ceramic LED Water clearRGB-LED

Specifications:

  • Voltage: 3.2 to 3.6 V 
  • Current: 700 mA

 

 

  • The Peltier module is a ceramic electronic component that uses the thermoelectric effect to convert current into heat. This is for water production.
Peltier Element Tests (TEC1-12706) - YouTube
The Peltier module

Specifications:

  • Operating voltage 12V
  • Max. operating voltage 15V
  • Operating current range 3-6A
  • Power consumption range 30 - 60W
  • Module resistance range 1.98 - 2.3Ohms
  • Max. temperature difference 75°C (Th=50°C), 68°C (Th=27°C)
  • Max. operating temperature 55 - 85°C
  • Dimensions 40x40x4mm (1.6x1.6x0.16in)
Pinout of the TEC-12706
  • Heatsink for the Peltier module, you can use any type of heatsink.
DIY Kit Tec1-12706 Thermoelectric Peltier Module Water Cooler Cooling -  China Peltier Cooler and Heatsink
Heatsink 

 

  • Fan for the Peltier module, you can use any type of fan.
Buy Heatsink with a 92mm fan for the Peltier 40mm Botland - Robotic Shop
Fan  

 

  • Battery  
Buy 18650 Li-ion Rechargeable Battery Cell Online – QuartzComponents
Battery  (18650)
  • Nominal Voltage: 3.6V
  • Nominal Capacity: 2,850 mAh
  • Minimum Discharge Voltage: 3V
  • Maximum Discharge current: 1C
  • Charging Voltage: 4.2V (maximum)
  • Charging current: 0.5C
  • Charging Time: 3 hours (approx)
  • Charging Method: CC and CV
  • Cell Weight: 48g (approx)
  • Cell Dimension: 18.4mm (dia) and 65mm (height)

 

  • Buck-boost converter (MP1584EN) is a type of DC-to-DC converter that has an output voltage magnitude that is either greater than or less than the input voltage magnitude. It is equivalent to a flyback converter using a single inductor instead of a transformer.[1] Two different topologies are called buck–boost converter. Both of them can produce a range of output voltages, ranging from much larger (in absolute magnitude) than the input voltage, down to almost zero.
MP1584EN Mini convertisseur abaisseur module 4,5V - 28V
Pinout for the MP1584EN

Specifications:

  • Tension d'entrée: 4.5V-28V
  • Tension de sortie: 0.8V-20V
  • Courant de sortie: 3A (maximum)
  • Efficacité de Conversion: 96% (maximum)
  • Ondulation de sortie: <30mV
  • Fréquence de commutation: 1.4MHz (la plus élevée), 1MHz typique
  • Température de fonctionnement: -45 à + 85 degrés Celsius
  • Dimensions: 22mm * 17mm * 4mm
 

 

 SD Card Module is a breakout board used for SD card processes such as reading and writing with a microcontroller, this will be for the storage.

VS-ELEC Micro SD Card Module SPI Interface Mini TF Card pour Arduino -  Cdiscount Bricolage
 SD Card Module

Specifications:

  • Operating Voltage: 4.5V - 5.5V DC.
  • Current Requirement: 0.2-200 mA.
  • 3.3 V on-board Voltage Regulator.
  • Supports FAT file system.
  • Supports micro SD up to 2GB.
  • Supports Micro SDHC up to 32GB.
 

 

  • NFC Module (MFRC522) is capable of reading and writing NFC tags (RFID cards, NFC enabled devices like phones), this will be for the android apps.
Lecteur RFID NFC RC522, 10 pièces/lot, Module de capteur inductif de carte  IC RF pour Module Arduino + carte S50 + porte clés | AliExpress
NFC Module(MFRC522)

Specifications:

  • Chip: MFRC522
  • Operating frequency: 13.56MHz
  • Power supply voltage: 3.3V
  •  Current: 13 - 26mA
  • Read Range: Approx 30mm
  • Communication: SPI interface
  •  Max Data Transfer Rate: 10Mbit/s
  • Dimensions: 40 x 60mm [1.6 x 2.4in]

 

 

/////////////////////////////Preparation:////////////////////////////

 All the schematics can be found on my GitHub page

To use the WizFi360 Arduino library, the development environment must be configured to use the Arduino platform.

Please note that in this guide examples were configured and tested using Arduino IDE in a Windows environment.

Before starting, download and install the Arduino IDE from the link below.

Additionally, if you are using WizFi360-EVB-Pico, minor settings are required in the Arduino IDE.

WizFi360-EVB-Pico is a development board based on RP2040, and you need to add a package to use the development board based on RP2040.

① Run the Arduino IDE

② Open Preferences

You can open it through 'File → Preferences' in the menu bar of Arduino IDE.

③ Add next link to Additional Boards Manager URL

https://github.com/earlephilhower/arduino-pico/releases/download/global/package_rp2040_index.json

 

Add Boards Manager URLs 

/////////////////////////////Code :////////////////////////////

 

① On this link, you will be able to see the tutorial for the library's Arduino.

 https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Tx3Gb5ER3JG8XA-Yn79cRBUFH_t6G9D6/view?usp=sharing

 

② Once that is done, open the zip files, search for Ivypots.ino and open it.

 

 

③ Connect your device and select the correct port or press the BOOTSELL Button while plugging your cable.

 

 

 

 

 

④ Finally, transfer the program to the Wizfi360-EVB-Pico.🥸

 

⑤ If the program works you should see this  : 😎

Temperature/Humidity sensor
 Soil moisture sensor

 

The Circuit

 Here is an example of what you can do with this device :

Data logger Aht10 (Temperature/Humidity)

Future of this project:

  • Create a custom PCB 
  • Design and 3D Print an enclosure.
  • Thank You Wiznet for providing the free development kit and providing examples and documentation. 🙌

 

Documents
  • Schematics

    this is the schematics for the project

  • Code and steps

    Here is my github page for all additional informations

  • Library

    This is the link for the tutorial of the libraries of Arduino.

  • Gerber file

    Please note that this is just a test file, not the final Gerber file

  • PCB Image

    Please note that this is not the final PCB, I am currently working on it.

Credits
Nacros115

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