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Published November 01, 2022 ©

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Smart Irrigation System

The implemented system consists of a WizFi360-EVB-Pico a main processing unit for the entire

COMPONENTS Hardware components

seeed - Grove - Ultrasonic Ranger

x 1

DFRobot - Gravity: DHT11 Temperature Humidity Sensor For Arduino

x 1

sparkfun - SparkFun Soil Moisture Sensor (with Screw Terminals)

x 1

Software Apps and online services

thonny.org - Thonny

x 1


Plants play a vital role in maintaining the ecological cycle, and thus, to maintain the plant's proper
growth and health, adequate monitoring is required. Hence, the aim of the chapter is to create a smart plant monitoring system using automation and internet of things (IOT) technology. This topic highlights various features such as smart decision making based on soil moisture real-time data. For this purpose, sensors like soil moisture sensor, DHT11 sensor, level sensor, etc. are used. The soil moisture sensor measures the level of moisture (i.e., water content of different plants). The signal will be sent to Arduino board when the moisture level drops below the marginal value, which triggers the pumping of water into the plant by the pump. When the moisture level reaches absolute value, the pump is halted. The other condition for this process is level sensor. Level sensor senses the water level in the tank and sends the information of water level value to WizFi360-EVB-Pico board and WizFi360-EVB-Pico to cloud. The whole data about the plant monitoring will be sent to the cloud server via in-built Wifi module.

In India about 35% of land was under reliably irrigated. And the 2/3rd part of land is depending
on monsoon for the water. Irrigation reduces dependency on monsoon, improves food security
and improves productivity of agriculture and it offers more opportunities for jobs in rural areas.
Farmers are facing problems related to watering system that how much water has to supply and
at what time? Sometimes overwatering causes the damage to crops and as well as waste of water.Hence for avoid such damage we need to maintain approximate water level in soil. In this paper,humidity sensor, moisture sensor, temperature sensors placed in root zone of plant and gateway unit(WizFi360-EVB-Pico) handles the sensor information and transmit data to a android
application. This application is developed for measure approximate values of temperature sensor,
humidity sensor and moisture sensor that was programmed into a Wiznet board to monitor health ofour plant.
Hardware components:
1) Sensors (Soil Moisture, DHT11, Ultrasonic)
2) WizFi360-EVB-Pico
Software components:
1) Thonny IDE

WizFi360-EVB-Pico:-WizFi360-EVB-Pico is based on Raspberry Pi RP2040 and adds Wi-Fi connectivity using WizFi360. It is pincompatible with Raspberry Pi Pico board and can be used for IoT Solution development.

SOIL MOISTURE SENSOR:-Soil moisture sensor is used to detect the moisture of the soil. This sensor is made up of two pieces: the electronic board at the right, and the probe with two pads, that detects the moisture content of soil. How does it work? The voltage of the sensor outputs changes accordingly to the moisture level in the soil. When the soil is:Wet: The output voltage decrease Dry: The output voltage increase.

HC-SR04 UlTRASONIC SENSOR:-It consists of four pins namely; Vcc, Ground, Trigger, and Echo pin. Vcc and Ground are used to power sensor.We should supply 5 volts to the Vcc pin and connect the GND pin with the ground terminal of the power supply.Trigger: It is an input pin. A trigger pin is used to initiate the ultrasonic sensor to start distance measurement or distance ranging. When users want to get distance measurements from the sensor, we apply a 10µs pulse to this pin Echo: This is a pulse output pin. The echo pin produces a pulse as an output. The width of pulse or on-time of
the pulse depends on the distance between the ultrasonic sensor and the obstacle which is placed in front of the HC-SR04 sensor. In idle conditions, this pin remains at an active low level.

DHT11 SENSOR:-The system consists of temperature and humidity sensor(DHT 11) This sensor will measure the primary environmental factors temperature, humidity levels. All this sensors will gives the analog voltage representing one particular weather factor. The WizFi360-EVB-Pico will converts this analog voltage into digital data. The DHT11 is an essential, ultra minimal effort computerized temperature and humidity sensor. It utilizes a capacitive humidity sensor and a thermistor to gauge the surrounding air, and releases a digital data on the data pin (no analog information pins required). The main genuine drawback of this sensor is you can just get new

information from it once every 2 seconds, so when utilizing our library, sensor readings can be up to 2 seconds old. It works on 3 to 5V power supply. Good for 20- 80% humidity readings with 5% accuracy and for 0-50°C temperature readings ±2°C accuracy .

The code comprises of 3 parts:
1. hcsr04.py
2. dht.py
3. dht11_ultra_soil.py

A system to monitor temperature, humidity, moisture levels in the soil was designed and the project provides an opportunity to study the existing systems, along with their features and drawbacks.Agriculture is one of the most water-consuming activities. The proposed system can be used to switch the motor (on/off) depending on favourable condition of plants i.e sensor values, thereby automating the process of irrigation. which is one of the most time efficient activities in farming, which helps to prevent over irrigation or under irrigation of soil thereby avoiding crop damage.The farm owner can monitor the process online through a android App. Though this project can be concluded that there can be considerable development in farming with the use of IOT and automation.


  • Smart Irrigation

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